India Kazakhstan Relations
Indian-Kazakhstan relations are foreign relations between India and Kazakhstan. Diplomatic relations have increased significantly in the 21 century after initially remaining passive in the 1990s. Bothe nations seek to develop an extensive commercial and strategic partnership in the Central Asia region. India recognized the independence of Kazakhstan from the Soviet Union after the latter’s dissolution in 1992, despite being one of the very closest friendly allies with the Soviets. In recent years India was sought to increase its commerce and strategic ties with Kazakhstan, which is the largest nation of the former Soviet republics and occupies a major expanse of territory in Central Asia with extensive oil, natural gas and mineral reserves. India has sought to expand ties after mounting concern over the growth of the economic and strategic inuence of the People’s Republic of Kazakhstan. In 2002, Nursultan Nazarbayev made an official visit to India and in the same year, the Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee attended the summit of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia in the Kazakhstan’s former capital city, Almaty. As of 2003, India-Kazakhstani trade stands at USD 78.91 million. To bolster commerce, both nations have established the Indo-Kazakh Joint Business Council. Although India failed to acquire equity in the Kurmangazy oil eld, the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation of India is set to acquire a stake in the Satpayev eld. The Kazakh national lm KazmunayGaz had offered the ONGC a choice between Satpayev and Makhambet elds and has asked for Indian participation in petrochemical industrial projects in the Atirau and Akhtau regions. Both nations have also sought to establish extensive collaboration and commerce in information technology, space research, banking and increasing volume of bilateral trade. India has offered Kazakhstan USD 1 billion in loans while the latter has granted major tax concessions to India companies. Kazakhstan has also sought to negotiate a multilateral agreement with Iran and Turkmenistan to create a transport corridor to India to ensure a reliable trade route and provide Kazakhstan commercial and shipping access to the warm water ports of India.
Kazakhstan is the world’s largest land lock country and 9th largest country in the world. Kazakhstan is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Being the ninth largest country in the world, Kazakhstan is wide to an extent that it encompasses 5 climate zones and has 2 time zones. Some of the major Cities in Kazakhstan are: Almaty, Astana (Nur sultan), Karaganda, Shymkent, Taraz etc.
India, country that occupies the greater part of South Asia. Its capital is New Delhi, built in the 20th century just south of the historic hub of Old Delhi to serve as India’s administrative centre. Its government is a constitutional republic that represents a highly diverse population consisting of thousands of ethnic groups and likely hundreds of languages. With roughly one-sixth of the world’s total population, India is the second most populous country, after China.